Inglisc

A Personal Spelling Reform of English with the Principle of Segsyoxafu and the Phonological History of English

NEVER FORCE OTHERS TO WRITE IN THIS WAY!
Nevre forse uðerz to wrīta in ðis wej!


Orthography
Orþógrafi

The vowel letters(“V” below):
u/ų/o/a/ą/æ/e/i/y: short
ū/ō/ā/ǣ/ē/ī/ȳ: long

The diphthongs:
eo/ea/ēo/ēa

u/ų: reciprocally marked
a/ą: reciprocally marked

The long vowel letters are from the vowel letters marked with macrons of Old English.

Acute accent marks are used for stresses but they are omitted when the stresses are on the first syllables.

Diaeresises are used for hiatuses.


The consonant letters(“C” below):
p/b/m/t/d/n/h/w/r/l
s/z: reciprocally marked
f/v: reciprocally marked
þ/ð: reciprocally marked
k/c: reciprocally marked
ç: marked c
ᵹ/ȝ/j: reciprocally marked
g: marked

If unavailable:
ų→u
ą→a
æ→a
ð→d
þ→t
ç→c
ᵹ→g
ȝ→j
cȝ→cg


Open syllable lengthening:
When the first V(o/a/æ/e/eo/ea) of VCV(or monosyllable) is stressed, it is lengthened(not the same as the long vowel letters) and the second V(u/o/a/e) is silent.

Silent V:
When a word has more than one syllable, the unstressed V(u/o/a/e) at the end of the word is silent.

Grave accent marks and circumflexes(acute+grave) are used to separate the sounds of V from those of following C(h/w/r/l).


References:
Oxford English Dictionary
Merriam-Webster
Collins COBUILD ADVANCED American
THE WISDOM English Japanese
Smith, Jeremy J. (2007). Sound Change and the History of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
市河三喜・松浪有 1986 『古英語・中英語初歩』 研究社
橋本功 2005 『英語史入門』 慶應義塾大学出版会
大槻博・大槻きょう子 2007 『英語史概説』 燃焼社
Phonological history of English – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ogonek – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Insular G – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Yogh – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Icelandic Braille – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Online Scots Dictionary — Translate English to Scots
Gwensoku(Segsyoxafu)
Tokusyu na kigau(Segsyoxafu)


[Old English]>[Modern English]: [Orþógrafi]

closed:
man>man: man
lamb: lamb
sang: sanᵹ
assa>ass: assa

closed:
fæþm>fathom: fæðm
sæc>sack: sæk
sæt>sat: sæt
æt>at: æt
mæsse>mass: mæsse
weax>wax: weaks
hraþor>rather: hraðr
gaderian>gather: gaðre

closed:
āscian>ask: aske
fǣt>fat: fæt
lǣstan>last: læsta
blēddre(blǣddre)>bladder: blæddre
brēmbel(brǣmbel)>bramble: bræmbel
alphabet: âlfabét

closed
swan: swan
wascan>wash: wasca

closed:
swæþ>swath: swæþ
wæsp>wasp: wæsp

closed:
wealwian>wallow: wealwe
swealwe>swallow: swealwe
cf.
spearwa>sparrow: spearwa
sceadwe>shadow: sceadwe
welig>willow: wilᵹ
sorg>sorrow: sorᵹ
elboga>elbow: elboᵹa
āgen>own(adj./pron.): āᵹen
āgnian>own(verb): āᵹene(?)

closed:
heard>hard: heard
ærc>ark: ærk

closed:
swearm>swarm: swearm
sweart>swart: sweart
weardian>ward: wearde
wearm>warm: wearm
wearnian>warn: wearne

closed:
smæl>small: smæll
all: all
walcian>walk: walke
tæl+-ra>taller: tællra
tæl+-est>tallest: tællest
cf.
talente/talentan>talent: tàllente/tàllenta
salmon: sammon

ælmesse>alms: ælmze
palma>palm: palma
healf>half: healf(RP)/heaf(GA)(?)
cealf>calf: kealf(RP)/keaf(GA)(?)
cf.
fæder>father: fæðr(RP)/fąðer(GA)(?)

closed:
glæs>glass: glæs
græs>grass: græs
pæþ>path: pæþ
æfter>after: æfter
āscian>ask: aske
lǣstan>last: læsta


open:
nama>name: nama
nacod>naked: nakid(?)
bacan>bake: baka
æcer>acre: æker
hwæl>whale: hwæle
hræfn>raven: hræven
baþian>bathe: baðe
swaþian>swathe: swaðe
hlæfdīge>lady: hlædije

open:
caru>care: karu
faran>fare: fara
starian>stare: stare


closed:
helpan>help: helpa
tellan>tell: tella
betera>better: betra
streccan>stretch: strecca

closed:
seofon>seven: seovn
heofon>heaven: heovn
eolh>elk: eolk
cf.
dweorh>dwarf: dweorh(?)
færh>farrow: færw
seolh>seal: seole

closed:
myrige>merry: merje
byrgan>bury: berja
lyft>left: left
cnyll>knell: knell

closed:
cēpte>kept: kepte
mētte>met: mette
bēcnan>beckon: bekna
clǣnsian>cleanse: klenze
flǣsc>flesh: flesc
lǣssa>less: lessa
frēond>friend: freond
þēofþ>theft: þeoft
hēold>heold

closed:
heorte>heart: heorte
bercan>bark: berka
teoru>tar: teor
steorra>star: steorra

closed:
werra>war: werra
werbler>warble: werble

closed:
eorl>irl
eorþe>earth: irþe
leornian>learn: lirne

hērde>heard: hirde


open:
specan>speak: speka
mete>meat: mete
beofor>beaver: beovor
meotan/metan>mete: meota/meta
eotan/etan>eat: eota/eta
meodu>mead: meodu
yfel>evel: evel/evil(?)

open:
spere>spear: spere
mere: mere

open:
brecan>break: braka


closed:
beran>bear: bèr
pere/peru>pear: pèr/pèr
swerian>swear: swèr
wer>were-: wèr

closed:
leþer>leather: leðr
stede>stead: sted
weder>weather: weðr
heofon>heaven: heovn
leopard: leoprd
Leonard: leonrd
hefig>heavy: hevj(?)
cf.
people: pepel
hæp+-ig>happy: hæppij(?)


writen>written: writen
sittan>sit: sitta
fisc>fish: fisc
lifer>liver: liver

brycg>bridge: brycȝ
cyssan>kiss: kyssa
dyde>did: dyde
syn>sin: syn
gyldan>gild: gylda
bysig>busy: byzij
cyning>king: kynnᵹ

wīsdōm>wisdom: wizdom
fīftig>fifty: fiftij
wȳscan>wish: wysca
cȳþþu>kith: kyþþu
fȳst>fist: fyst

cīcen>chicken: cikin
lȳtel>little: lytel

closed:
sēoc>sick: sik
wēoce>wick: wike
cf.
sēcan>seek: sēka
sēks: sēks

styrne>stern: styrne
gyrdan>gird: gyrda
fyrst>first: fyrst
styrian>stir: styre(!)
cyrice>church: cyrce(!)
byrþen>burden: byrden
hyrdel>hurdle: hyrdel
wyrm>worm: wyrm

open:
wicu>week: wēku
pilian>peel: pēle
bitela>beetle: bētela


closed:
god: god
begondan>beyond: bejónda
gōdspell>gospel: gospell
fōddor>fodder: foddor
fōstrian>foster: fostre

closed:
moþþe>moth: moþþe
cros>cross: kros
frost: frost
of>off: of
oft: oft
sōfte>soft: softe
cf.
of: ov

closed:
corn: korn
storc: stork
storm: storm
bord>board: bord

closed:
folc>folk: folk
holm: holm
roll: rolle
cf.
solve: sòlve(solve?)
doll: dol(?)


open:
fola>foal: fola
nosu>nose: nozu
ofer>over: over
o>oh: ó

open:
borian>bore: bore
fore: fore


buc>buck: buk
lufian>love: luve
uppe>up: uppe
a(on)+bufan>above: abúva
bulk: bulk

mycel>much: muce
blyscan>blush: blusca
cycgel>cudgel: kucȝel
clyccan>clutch: klucca
scytel>shuttle: scutel

dūst>dust: dust
tūsc>tusk: tusk
rūst>rust: rust

closed(?)(p/b/m/w…l/sc):
full: fųll
bula>bull: bųl(bųla?)
wulf>wolf: wųlf
bysc>bush: bųsc
cf.
pulse: puls

closed:
word: word
work/wurc>work: work/wurk
werold/world>world: world
wyrsa>worse: wyrsa
weorþ/worþ/wurþ>worth: worþ/wurþ
cf.
þuruh>thorough: þuru(RP)/þuroh
þurh>through: þrō
hurry: huri

brȳdguma>bridegroom: brȳdgrōma/brȳdgrųma

open:
duru>door: doru

open:
wudu>wood: wųdu(?)
wolde>would: wųde(?)
wīfman>woman: wųman(?)
cf.
sceolde>should: scųd
cūþe>could: kųd
wīfman>women: wimin


āc>oak: āk
hāl>whole: hāl

camb>comb: kāmb
ald>old: āld
cald>cold: kāld
bald>bold: bāld
faldan>fold: fālda
haldan>hold: hālda
cf.
gold: gāld

ār>oar: ār
māra/māre>more: māra/māre
bār>boar: bār
sār>sore: sār


hǣlan>heal: hǣla
hǣtu>heat: hǣtu
hwǣte>wheat: hwǣte

open:
bēatan>beat: bēata(!)

lēaf>leaf: lēaf
cēap>cheap: cēap

rǣran>rear: rǣra
ēare>ear: ēare
sēar>sere: sēar
sēarian>sear: sēare

closed(?):
grēat>great: grejt

closed:
ǣr>ere: èr

closed(…þ/ð/d/t):
brǣþ>breath: breþ
swǣtan>sweat: swet
sprǣdan>spread: spred
dēad>dead: ded
dēaþ>death: deþ
þrēat>threat: þret
rēad>red: red
dēaf>deaf: def
hēafod>head: hed(hefd/hevd?)
cf.
rǣdan>read: rǣda
reads: rǣdz
lǣdan>lead: lǣda
leads: lǣdz


fēt>feet: fēt
dēd>deed: dēd
nēdl>needle: nēdl

dēop>deep: dēop
fēond>fiend: fēond

feld>field: fēld
geldan>yield: jēlda

hēr>here: hēr
fēr>fear: fēr

closed:
þēr>there: ðèr
hwēr>where: hwèr

bēor>beer: bēor
dēor>deer: dēor

open:
fēdan>feed: fēda
grēdig>greedy: grēdij
betwēonum>between: betwēonu
hēran>hear: hēra
dēore>dear: dēore
stēran>stēr: stēra


rīdan>ride: rīda
tīma>time: tīma
hwīt>white: hwīt
mīn>mine: mīn
crying: krīïnᵹ(krīinᵹ?)

mȳs>mice: mȳs
brȳd>bride: brȳd
hȳdan>hide: hȳda

findan>find: fīnda
cild>child: cīld
climban>climb: klīmb
mynd>mind: mȳnd

fȳr>fire: fȳr
hȳrian>hire: hȳre
wīr>wire: wīr


mōna>moon: mōna
sōna>soon: sōna
fōda>food: fōda

cēosan>choose: cōza(cēoza?)
scēotan>shoot: scōta(scēota?)

closed:
flōr>floor: flor
mōr>moor: mųr/mor

blōd>blood: blud
flōd>flood: flud
glōf>glove: gluv
mōdor>mother: muðor
brōþor>brother: bruðor
ōþer>other: uðer
dōn>done: dun
mōnaþ>month: munþ
cf.
mōd>mood: mōd
rūn>rune: rōn
wudu>wood: (wōdu>)wųdu(?)

gōd>good: gųd
bōc>book: bųk
fōt>foot: fųt
pōr: pųr
gulden: gųlden
rūm>room: rōm/rųm
lōcian>look: lųke
lōking: lųkinᵹ
cf.
bōt>boot: bōt


mūs>mouse: mūs
ūt>out: ūt
hlūd>loud: hlūd

gefunden: fūnde
hund>hound: hūnd
gesund>sound: sūnd

ūre>our: ūre
scūr>shower: scūr
sūr>sour: sūr

būtan>but: buta
strūtian>strute


dæg>day: dæj
mæg>may: mæj
mægden>maiden: mæjden
nægl>nail: næjl
fæger>fair: fæjr
clǣg>clay: klǣj
græg>gray: græj
cf.
cǣg>key: kǣ

weg>way: wej
plegan>pleja
regn>rain: rejn
leger>lair: lejr
legde>laid: lejde
hēg>hay: hēj

ēage>eye: ēaje
lēogan>lie: lēoja
flēoge/flȳge>fly: flēoje/flyje

tigel>tile: tijl
lige>lie: lije
hīgian>hie: hīje
ryge>rye: ryje
byge>buy: byje
drȳge>dry: drȳje


clawu>claw: klawu
lagu>law: laᵹu
dragan>draw: draᵹa
audio: awdiow

mǣw>mew: mǣw
lǣwede>lewd: lǣwde
scrēawa>shrew: scrēawa
eowu>ewe: eowu

cēowan>chew: cēowa
hrēowan>rue: hrēowa
blēow>blew: blēow
trēowþ>truth: trēowþ
trēowe>true: trēowe

hīw>hue: hīw
nīwe>new: nīwe
Tīwesdæg>Tuesday: Tīwzdæj

flogen>flown: floᵹen
grōwan>grow: grōwa
cf.
growing: growïnᵹ

fugol>fowl: fuᵹol

sleaht+-or>slaughter: sleahtor

hleahtor>laughter: hleaftor

streht>straight: streht

hēah>high: hēah
þēoh>thigh: þēoh
nēh>nigh: nēh

riht>right: riht
flyht>flighr: flyht
lēoht>light: lēoht
ic>ih(Northumbrian)>I: ih
cf.
-lic>-liȝ(Ormulum)>-ly: -lij
-līce>-liȝ(Ormulum)>-ly: -lij
ǣfre ǣlc>every: evri
rīce>rich: rice
pic>pitch: pic

dāg>dough: dāᵹ

trog>trough: trof

āhte>ought: ahte
dohtor>daughter: dohtor
þōht>thought: þoht
sōhte>sought: sohte

bōg>bough: bōᵹ
plōg>plough: plōᵹ

genōg/genōh>enough: jenúf(?)
tōh>tough: tuf
ruh>rough: ruf


a: a(weak)/á(strong)
ēow>you: eow(weak)/ēow(strong)
bēon>been: bin(weak)/bēon(strong)
bēon>be: beo(weak)/bēo(strong)
mē>me: me(weak)/mē(strong)
wē>we: we(weak)/wē(strong)
hē>he: he(weak)/hē(strong)
she: sce(weak)/scē(strong)
the: ðe(weak before V)/ðē(strong)/ð(weak before C)
tō>to: to(weak)/tō(strong)/t'(dropped)
dōn>do: do(weak)/dō(strong)/d'(dropped)
tō+dæg>today: todǽj
cf.
ic>ih(Northumbrian)>I: ih
wicu>week: wēku
wudu>wood: wųdu
þrēo>three: þrēo
trēo>tree: trēo


ænig>any: enj
anything: enjþinᵹ

activity: aktíviti
activities: aktívitiz/aktívitìz
everybody: évrìbódj/evri-bodj

alpha: àlfà
beta: betà/bejtà
momma: mommà


_knV/_ᵹnV/Ckn/Cᵹn(silent k/):
cniht>knight: kniht
cnāwan>know: knāwa
gnætt>gnat: ᵹnæt
gnagan>gnaw: ᵹnaᵹa
morgen+-ing>morning: morᵹninᵹ

Vkn/Vgn(voiced k/g):
bēcnan>beckon: bekna
gerecenian>reckon: rekne
deorc+-nian>darken: deorkne
blæc+-nian>blacken: blækne
slæc+-nian>slacken: slækne
cwic/cwicu+-nian>quicken: kwikne
sēoc+-nian>sicken: sikne
þicce+-nian>thicken: þikne


d/t between f/v/l/m/n/s/z/k/z is silent:
þīstel>thistle: þistl
bustle: bustl
castle: kastl
apostle: apóstl
fæstnian>fasten: fæstne
sōfte+-nian>soften: softne
landscape: lándskápe/land-skape
pund+-as>pounds: pūndz
Crīstes mæsse>Christmas: Kristmæsse
wilde+-līce>wildly: wīldlij
hand+-sum>handsome: handsum
handkerchief: handkurcif/hándkurcēf/hand-kurcēf
oft>often: oftn/often(pronounced t)
waistcoate: wéjstkóte/wejst-kote/westkot(?)
cf.
hlysnan>listen: hlysna
īgland>island: ijland


choice: cojs
boil: bujle
vein: vejne
vain: væjn
pane: pane
pain: pejne
tā>toe: tā
togian>tow: toᵹe

egg: eg
pig: pig
bag: bagge

joy: ȝoj
judge: ȝucȝe
age: aȝe
Japan: Ȝappán
Japanese: Ȝáppanéze
arrange: aréjnȝe(?)
angel: ejnȝel(?)
flange: flanȝ
hinge: hinȝ
cf.
ecg>edge: ecȝ

Englisc>English: Inglisc
finger: finger
gung>young: junᵹ
long: lonᵹ
long+-ra>longer: longra
long+-est: longest
singan: sinᵹa
singan+-ere>singer: sinᵹere
hangra>hanger(wood): hanᵹra
hungor>hunger: hungor
accordingly: akkórdinᵹli
language: langwiȝe
langue: ląng

hālig>holy: hālij
signe: sijne
signal: signàl(signal/signl?)
gif>if: jif(?)
gēse>yes: jes
gēotan>yet: jeot
yacht: jot
yahoo: jąhō(?)
yiddish: jïdisc

relax: reláks
relaxation: rēlaksásion
luxury: luksiwri/lugziwri
exaggerate: egzácȝeráte
xenon: zēnón/zénnón
bōc+-as>books: bųks
exhale: eks-hale(?)
extraordinary: ekstr’ordenerj/ekstra-ordinerj/etc.(?)
exhaust: egzháwst(egzáwst?)
exhibit: egzhíbit(egzíbit?)
cf.
shepherd: sceppird(?)

loch: lox(?)

cats: kats
games: gamez
gates: gatus
lakes: lakus

potatoes: potátowz(?)
hiatus: hīéjtus
taste: tejst
post: pāst

ogre: oger
maple: mapel
able: abel

idea: īdía(RP)/īdēä(GA)

butcher: bųcer
rule: riwle
music: miwzik
university: iwnivérsiti
pasture: pastiwr
poor: pųr
pure: piwr
sure: siwr
pleasure: plezziwr
prelude: prelliwde
cf.
ēow>you: ēow
ēower>your: ēowr

bomb: bombe
bomber: bommere(b>m)
climban>climb: klīmb
climber: klīmmere(b>m)
number: numbre
cucumber: kiwkumber
autumn: awtumn
solemn: sòllemn
solemnity: sollémniti

escheat: esçéte(?)

swV(stressed)(?):
swōn: swōn
swōsh: swōsc
swāpan>swoop: swōp
swore: swore
swum: swumme
swung: swunᵹe
cf.
sweord>sword: sord
swyster>sister: syster
swā>so: sa(weak)/sā(strong)
andswaru>answer: andswaru
wā>woe: wā
hwā>who: hwō
twā>two: twō
mid+wīf>midwife: midwīf

this morning: ðis morᵹninᵹ/ðsmorᵹninᵹ
this afternōn: ðis ǽfternōn/ðis æfter-nōn/ðsǽfternōn/ðsæfter-nōn
this evening: ðis ǣvninᵹ/ðsǣvninᵹ


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