Inglisc

A Personal Spelling Reform of English with the Principle of Segsyoxafu and the Phonological History of English

NEVER FORCE OTHERS TO WRITE IN THIS WAY!
Nevre forse uðerz to wriita in ðis wej!


Orthography
Orþógrafi

The vowel letters(“V” below):
u/ų/o/a/ą/æ/e/i/y: unstressed short
uu/oo/aa/ææ/ee/ii/yy: long(marked)

The diphthongs:
eo/ea/eeo/eea

The vowel letters u and ų are reciprocally marked.
The vowel letter ą is a marked a.

The long vowel letters are from the vowel letters marked with macrons of Old English.

Acute accent marks are used for stresses but they are omitted when the stresses are on the first syllables.

Diaeresises are used for hiatuses.


The consonant letters(“C” below):
p/b/m/t/d/n/h/w/r/l
s/z: reciprocally marked
f/v: reciprocally marked
þ/ð: reciprocally marked
k/c: reciprocally marked
q: marked k/c for loch
ç: marked c
ᵹ/ȝ/j: reciprocally marked
g: marked /ȝ/j
nğ: marked ng
x: normally ks but gz before a stressed V; not on morpheme boundaries

If unavailable:
ų→u
ą→a
æ→a
ææ→ae
ð→d
þ→t
ç→c
ᵹ→g
ğ→g
ȝ→j
cȝ→cg


Open syllable lengthening:
When the first V(o/a/æ/e/eo/ea) of VCV(or monosyllable) is stressed, it is lengthened(not the same as the long vowel letters) and the second V(u/o/a/e) is silent.

Silent V:
When a word has more than one syllable, the unstressed V(u/o/a/e) at the end of the word is silent.

Grave accent marks and circumflexes(acute+grave) are used to separate the sounds of V from those of following C(h/w/r/l).

The long vowel letters(uu/oo/aa/ææ/ee/ii/yy) are not used in unstressed syllables or after each of them merged with its corresponding short vowel letters.
Exceptions:
eeCV/eeoCV vs. eCV/eoCV
zoology: zaaólloȝi/zooólloȝi


References:
Oxford English Dictionary
Merriam-Webster
Collins COBUILD ADVANCED American
THE WISDOM English Japanese
Smith, Jeremy J. (2007). Sound Change and the History of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
市河三喜・松浪有 1986 『古英語・中英語初歩』 研究社
橋本功 2005 『英語史入門』 慶應義塾大学出版会
大槻博・大槻きょう子 2007 『英語史概説』 燃焼社
Phonological history of English – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ogonek – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Insular G – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Yogh – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
X – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Icelandic Braille – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Online Scots Dictionary — Translate English to Scots
Gwensoku(Segsyoxafu)
Tokusyu na kigau(Segsyoxafu)


[Old English]>[Modern English]: [Orþógrafi]

closed:
man>man: man
lamb: lamb
sang: sang
assa>ass: assa

closed:
fæþm>fathom: fæðm
sæc>sack: sæk
sæt>sat: sæt
æt>at: æt
mæsse>mass: mæsse
weax>wax: weax
hraþor>rather: hraðr
gaderian>gather: gaðre

closed:
āscian>ask: aske
fǣt>fat: fæt
lǣstan>last: læsta
blēddre(blǣddre)>bladder: blæddre
brēmbel(brǣmbel)>bramble: bræmbel
alphabet: âlfabét

closed
swan: swan
wascan>wash: wasca

closed:
swæþ>swath: swæþ
wæsp>wasp: wæsp

closed:
wealwian>wallow: wealwe
swealwe>swallow: swealwe
cf.
spearwa>sparrow: spearwa
sceadwe>shadow: sceadwe
welig>willow: wilᵹ
sorg>sorrow: sorᵹ
elboga>elbow: elboᵹa
āgen>own(adj./pron.): aaᵹen
āgnian>own(verb): aaᵹene(?)

closed:
heard>hard: heard
ærc>ark: ærk

closed:
swearm>swarm: swearm
sweart>swart: sweart
weardian>ward: wearde
wearm>warm: wearm
wearnian>warn: wearne

closed:
smæl>small: smæll
all: all
walcian>walk: walke
tæl+-ra>taller: tællra
tæl+-est>tallest: tællest
cf.
talente/talentan>talent: tàllente/tàllenta
salmon: sammon

ælmesse>alms: ælmze
palma>palm: palma
healf>half: healf(RP)/heaf(GA)(?)
cealf>calf: kealf(RP)/keaf(GA)(?)
cf.
fæder>father: fæðr(RP)/fąðer(GA)(?)

closed:
glæs>glass: glæs
græs>grass: græs
pæþ>path: pæþ
æfter>after: æfter
āscian>ask: aske
lǣstan>last: læsta


open:
nama>name: nama
nacod>naked: nakid(?)
bacan>bake: baka
æcer>acre: æker
hwæl>whale: hwæle
hræfn>raven: hræven
baþian>bathe: baðe
swaþian>swathe: swaðe
hlæfdīge>lady: hlædije

open:
caru>care: karu
faran>fare: fara
starian>stare: stare


closed:
helpan>help: helpa
tellan>tell: tella
betera>better: betra
streccan>stretch: strecca

closed:
seofon>seven: seovn
heofon>heaven: heovn
eolh>elk: eolk
cf.
dweorh>dwarf: dweorh(?)
færh>farrow: færw
seolh>seal: seole

closed:
myrige>merry: merje
byrgan>bury: berja
lyft>left: left
cnyll>knell: knell

closed:
cēpte>kept: kepte
mētte>met: mette
bēcnan>beckon: bekna
clǣnsian>cleanse: klenze
flǣsc>flesh: flesc
lǣssa>less: lessa
frēond>friend: freond
þēofþ>theft: þeoft
hēold>heold

closed:
heorte>heart: heorte
bercan>bark: berka
teoru>tar: teor
steorra>star: steorra

closed:
werra>war: werra
werbler>warble: werble

closed:
eorl>irl
eorþe>earth: irþe
leornian>learn: lirne

hērde>heard: hirde


open:
specan>speak: speka
mete>meat: mete
beofor>beaver: beovor
meotan/metan>mete: meota/meta
eotan/etan>eat: eota/eta
meodu>mead: meodu
yfel>evel: evel/evil(?)

open:
spere>spear: spere
mere: mere

open:
brecan>break: braka


closed:
beran>bear: bèr
pere/peru>pear: pèr/pèr
swerian>swear: swèr
wer>were-: wèr

closed:
leþer>leather: leðr
stede>stead: sted
weder>weather: weðr
heofon>heaven: heovn
leopard: leoprd
Leonard: leonrd
hefig>heavy: hevj(?)
cf.
people: pepel
hæp+-ig>happy: hæppij(?)


writen>written: writen
sittan>sit: sitta
fisc>fish: fisc
lifer>liver: liver

brycg>bridge: brycȝ
cyssan>kiss: kyssa
dyde>did: dyde
syn>sin: syn
gyldan>gild: gylda
bysig>busy: byzij
cyning>king: kynng

wīsdōm>wisdom: wizdom
fīftig>fifty: fiftij
wȳscan>wish: wysca
cȳþþu>kith: kyþþu
fȳst>fist: fyst

cīcen>chicken: cikin
lȳtel>little: lytel

closed:
sēoc>sick: sik
wēoce>wick: wike
cf.
sēcan>seek: seeka
seeks: seeks

styrne>stern: styrne
gyrdan>gird: gyrda
fyrst>first: fyrst
styrian>stir: styre(!)
cyrice>church: cyrce(!)
byrþen>burden: byrden
hyrdel>hurdle: hyrdel
wyrm>worm: wyrm

open:
wicu>week: weeku
pilian>peel: peele
bitela>beetle: beetela


closed:
god: god
begondan>beyond: bejónda
gōdspell>gospel: gospell
fōddor>fodder: foddor
fōstrian>foster: fostre

closed:
moþþe>moth: moþþe
cros>cross: kros
frost: frost
of>off: of
oft: oft
sōfte>soft: softe
cf.
of: ov

closed:
corn: korn
storc: stork
storm: storm
bord>board: bord

closed:
folc>folk: folk
holm: holm
roll: rolle
cf.
solve: sòlve(solve?)
doll: dol(?)


open:
fola>foal: fola
nosu>nose: nozu
ofer>over: over
o>oh: ó

open:
borian>bore: bore
fore: fore


buc>buck: buk
lufian>love: luve
uppe>up: uppe
a(on)+bufan>above: abúva
bulk: bulk

mycel>much: muce
blyscan>blush: blusca
cycgel>cudgel: kucȝel
clyccan>clutch: klucca
scytel>shuttle: scutel

dūst>dust: dust
tūsc>tusk: tusk
rūst>rust: rust

closed(?)(p/b/m/w…l/sc):
full: fųll
bula>bull: bųl(bųla?)
wulf>wolf: wųlf
bysc>bush: bųsc
cf.
pulse: puls

closed:
word: word
work/wurc>work: work/wurk
werold/world>world: world
wyrsa>worse: wyrsa
weorþ/worþ/wurþ>worth: worþ/wurþ
cf.
þuruh>thorough: þuru(RP)/þuroh
þurh>through: þroo
hurry: huri

brȳdguma>bridegroom: bryydgrooma/bryydgrwma

open:
duru>door: doru

open:
wudu>wood: wųdu(?)
wolde>would: wųde(?)
wīfman>woman: wųman(?)
cf.
sceolde>should: scųd
cūþe>could: kųd
wīfman>women: wimin


āc>oak: aak
hāl>whole: haal

camb>comb: kaamb
ald>old: aald
cald>cold: kaald
bald>bold: baald
faldan>fold: faalda
haldan>hold: haalda
cf.
gold: gaald

ār>oar: aar
māra>more: maare
bār>boar: baar
sār>sore: saar


hǣlan>heal: hææla
hǣtu>heat: hæætu
hwǣte>wheat: hwææte

open:
bēatan>beat: beeata(!)

lēaf>leaf: leeaf
cēap>cheap: ceeap

rǣran>rear: rææra
ēare>ear: eeare
sēar>sere: seear
sēarian>sear: seeare

closed(?):
grēat>great: grejt

closed:
ǣr>ere: èr

closed(…þ/ð/d/t):
brǣþ>breath: breþ
swǣtan>sweat: swet
sprǣdan>spread: spred
dēad>dead: ded
dēaþ>death: deþ
þrēat>threat: þret
rēad>red: red
dēaf>deaf: def
hēafod>head: hed(hefd/hevd?)
cf.
rǣdan>read: rææda
reads: ræædz
lǣdan>lead: lææda
leads: læædz


fēt>feet: feet
dēd>deed: deed
nēdl>needle: needl

dēop>deep: deeop
fēond>fiend: feeond

feld>field: feeld
geldan>yield: jeelda

hēr>here: heer
fēr>fear: feer

closed:
þēr>there: ðèr
hwēr>where: hwèr

bēor>beer: beeor
dēor>deer: deeor

open:
fēdan>feed: feeda
grēdig>greedy: greedij
betwēonum>between: betwéeonu
hēran>hear: heera
dēore>dear: deeore
stēran>steer: steera


rīdan>ride: riida
tīma>time: tiima
hwīt>white: hwiit
mīn>mine: miin
crying: kriiïng(kriiing?)

mȳs>mice: myys
brȳd>bride: bryyd
hȳdan>hide: hyyda

findan>find: fiinda
cild>child: ciild
climban>climb: kliimb
mynd>mind: myynd

fȳr>fire: fyyr
hȳrian>hire: hyyre
wīr>wire: wiir


mōna>moon: moona
sōna>soon: soona
fōda>food: fooda

cēosan>choose: cooza(ceeoza?)
scēotan>shoot: scoota(sceeota?)

closed:
flōr>floor: flor
mōr>moor: mųr/mor

blōd>blood: blud
flōd>flood: flud
glōf>glove: gluv
mōdor>mother: muðor
brōþor>brother: bruðor
ōþer>other: uðer
dōn>done: dun
mōnaþ>month: munþ
cf.
mōd>mood: mood
rūn>rune: roon
wudu>wood: (woodu>)wųdu(?)

gōd>good: gųd
bōc>book: bųk
fōt>foot: fųt
poor: pųr
gulden: gųlden
rūm>room: room/rųm
lōcian>look: lųke
looking: lųking
cf.
bōt>boot: boot


mūs>mouse: muus
ūt>out: uut
hlūd>loud: hluud

gefunden: fuunde
hund>hound: huund
gesund>sound: suund

ūre>our: uure
scūr>shower: scuur
sūr>sour: suur

būtan>but: buta
strūtian>strute


dæg>day: dæj
mæg>may: mæj
mægden>maiden: mæjden
nægl>nail: næjl
fæger>fair: fæjr
clǣg>clay: klæj
græg>gray: græj
cf.
cǣg>key: kææ

weg>way: wej
plegan>pleja
regn>rain: rejn
leger>lair: lejr
legde>laid: lejde
hēg>hay: hej

ēage>eye: eeaje
lēogan>lie: leeoja
flēoge/flȳge>fly: fleeoje/flyje

tigel>tile: tijl
lige>lie: lije
hīgian>hie: hije
ryge>rye: ryje
byge>buy: byje
drȳge>dry: dryje


clawu>claw: klawu
lagu>law: laᵹu
dragan>draw: draᵹa
audio: awdiow

mǣw>mew: mææw
lǣwede>lewd: lææwde
scrēawa>shrew: screeawa
eowu>ewe: eowu

cēowan>chew: ceowa
hrēowan>rue: hreowa
blēow>blew: bleow
trēowþ>truth: treowþ
trēowe>true: treowe

hīw>hue: hiw
nīwe>new: niwe
Tīwesdæg>Tuesday: Tiwzdæj

flogen>flown: floᵹen
grōwan>grow: growa
cf.
growing: growïng

fugol>fowl: fuᵹol

sleaht+-or>slaughter: sleahtor

hleahtor>laughter: hleaftor

streht>straight: streht

hēah>high: heeah
þēoh>thigh: þeeoh
nēh>nigh: neeh

riht>right: riht
flyht>flighr: flyht
lēoht>light: leeoht
ic>ih(Northumbrian)>I: ih
cf.
-lic>-liȝ(Ormulum)>-ly: -lij
-līce>-liȝ(Ormulum)>-ly: -lij
ǣfre ǣlc>every: evri
rīce>rich: rice
pic>pitch: pic

dāg>dough: daaᵹ

trog>trough: trof

āhte>ought: ahte
dohtor>daughter: dohtor
þōht>thought: þoht
sōhte>sought: sohte

bōg>bough: booᵹ
plōg>plough: plooᵹ

genōg/genōh>enough: jenúf(?)
tōh>tough: tuf
ruh>rough: ruf


a: a(weak)/á(strong)
ēow>you: eow(weak)/éow(strong)
bēon>been: bin(weak)/beeon(strong)
bēon>be: beo(weak)/beeo(strong)
mē>me: me(weak)/mee(strong)
wē>we: we(weak)/wee(strong)
hē>he: he(weak)/hee(strong)
she: sce(weak)/scee(strong)
the: ðe(weak before V)/ðee(strong)/ð(weak before C)
tō>to: to(weak)/too(strong)/t'(dropped)
dōn>do: do(weak)/doo(strong)/d'(dropped)
tō+dæg>today: todǽj
cf.
ic>ih(Northumbrian)>I: ih
wicu>week: weeku
wudu>wood: wudu
þrēo>three: þreeo
trēo>tree: treeo


ænig>any: enj
anything: enjþing

activity: aktíviti
activities: aktívitiz/aktívitìz
everybody: évrìbódj/evri-bodj

alpha: àlfà
beta: betà/bejtà
momma: mommà


_knV/_gnV/Ckn/Cgn(silent k/g):
cniht>knight: kniht
cnāwan>know: knaawa
gnætt>gnat: gnæt
gnagan>gnaw: gnaᵹa
morgen+-ing>morning: morgning

Vkn/Vgn(voiced k/g):
bēcnan>beckon: bekna
gerecenian>reckon: rekne
deorc+-nian>darken: deorkne
blæc+-nian>blacken: blækne
slæc+-nian>slacken: slækne
cwic/cwicu+-nian>quicken: kwikne
sēoc+-nian>sicken: sikne
þicce+-nian>thicken: þikne


d/t between f/v/l/m/n/s/z/k/z is silent:
þīstel>thistle: þistl
bustle: bustl
castle: kastl
apostle: apóstl
fæstnian>fasten: fæstne
sōfte+-nian>soften: softne
landscape: lándskápe/land-skape
pund+-as>pounds: puundz
Crīstes mæsse>Christmas: Kristmæsse
wilde+-līce>wildly: wiildlij
hand+-sum>handsome: handsum
handkerchief: handkurcif/hándkurcéef/hand-kurcéef
oft>often: oftn/often(pronounced t)
waistcoate: wéjstkóte/wejst-kote/westkot(?)
cf.
hlysnan>listen: hlysna
īgland>island: ijland


choice: cojs
boil: bujle
vein: vejne
vain: væjn
pane: pane
pain: pejne
tā>toe: taa
togian>tow: toᵹe

egg: eg
pig: pig
bag: bagge

joy: ȝoj
judge: ȝucȝe
age: aȝe
Japan: Ȝappán
Japanese: Ȝáppanéze
arrange: aréjnȝe(?)
angel: ejnȝel(?)
flange: flanȝ
hinge: hinȝ
cf.
ecg>edge: ecȝ

Englisc>English: Inglisc
finger: finger
gung>young: jung
long: long
long+-ra>longer: longra
long+-est: longest
singan: singa
singan+-ere>singer: sinğere
hangra>hanger(wood): hanğra
hungor>hunger: hungor
accordingly: akkórdinğli
language: langwiȝe
langue: ląng(?)

hālig>holy: haalij
signe: sijne
signal: signàl(signal/signl?)
gif>if: jif(?)
gēse>yes: jes
gēotan>yet: jeot
yacht: jot
yahoo: jąhoo(?)
yiddish: jïdisc

relax: reláx
relaxation: reelaksásion
luxury: luxiwri/lugziwri
exaggerate: exácȝeráte
xenon: zéenón/zénnón
bōc+-as>books: bųks
exhale: ex-hale(?)
extraordinary: extr’ordenerj/extra-ordinerj/etc.(?)
exhaust: exháwst(exáwst?)
exhibit: exhíbit(exíbit?)
cf.
shepherd: sceppird(?)

loch: lok/loq(?)

cats: kats
games: gamez
gates: gatus
lakes: lakus

potatoes: potátowz(?)
hiatus: hiiéjtus
taste: tejst
post: paast

ogre: oger
maple: mapel
able: abel

idea: iidía(RP)/iidéeä(GA)

butcher: bųcer
rule: riwle
music: miwzik
university: iwnivérsiti
pasture: pastiwr
poor: pųr
pure: piwr
sure: siwr
pleasure: plezziwr
prelude: prelliwde
cf.
ēow>you: eow
ēower>your: eowr

bomb: bombe
bomber: bommere(b>m)
climban>climb: kliimb
climber: kliimmere(b>m)
number: numbre
cucumber: kiwkumber
autumn: awtumn
solemn: sòllemn
solemnity: sollémniti

escheat: esçéte(?)

swV(stressed)(?):
swoon: swoon
swoosh: swoosc
swāpan>swoop: swoop
swore: swore
swum: swumme
swung: swunge
cf.
sweord>sword: sord
swyster>sister: syster
swā>so: sa(weak)/saa(strong)
andswaru>answer: andswaru
wā>woe: waa
hwā>who: hwoo
twā>two: twoo
mid+wīf>midwife: midwiif

this morning: ðis morgning/ðsmorgning
this afternoon: ðis ǽfternóon/ðis æfter-noon/ðsǽfternóon/ðsæfter-noon
this evening: ðis æævning/ðsæævning


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